19 January 2009 – Human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov and journalist Anastasia Baburova were shot dead in Moscow.

27 February 2015 – Boris Nemtsov was shot dead on the Bolshoi Moskvoretsky Bridge in Moscow.

16 April 2009 – The Russian authorities officially declared the counter-terrorism operation that had been in force in Chechnya since the start of the Second Chechen War in 1999 to have ended. 

7 May 2002 – Burdov v Russia (final 4 September 2002): first judgment by European Court of Human Rights in a case concerning Russia. 

7 May 2008 – Inauguration of President Medvedev. 7 May, 2000;

7 May 2000, 2004, 2012, 2018  – Inauguration of President Putin for first, second, third and fourth terms. 

10 July 1991 – Inauguration of President Yeltsin (first term). He had been elected on 12 June, 1991 as head of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. 

15 July 2009 – Human rights defender Natalia Estemirova was shot dead. Abducted outside her house in Groznyi, her body was found the same day in Ingushetia. 

9 August 1996 – Inauguration of President Yeltsin (second term). He had been elected on 3 July 1996 (first round had been held on 16 June 1996). 

10 August, 2009 –  Charity workers Zarema Sadulayeva, and her husband, Alik (Umar) Djabrailov, were abducted and shot dead in Groznyi. Their bodies were found the next day. 

31 August 1996 – the signing of the Khasavyurt agreements brought an end to the First Chechen War between Russia and Chechnya. 

1-3 September 2004 – Tragedy at Beslan School No. 1 in North Ossetia when an armed group took more than 1,100 people, including 777 children, hostage, demanding that the Second Chechen War be ended. On 3 September Russian forces stormed the building.  At least 334 hostages were killed, including 186 children. Hundreds were wounded. 

4 September 1999 – a bomb exploded in an apartment building in Buynaksk, marking the beginning of a series of explosions in apartment buildings in Russian cities – in Moscow on 9 September and 13 September and in Volgodonsk on 16 September – in which nearly 300 people were killed. 

1 October 1999 – Russian ground forces entered Chechnya, marking the start of the Second Chechen War. 

7 October 2006 – Journalist Anna Politkovskaya, a special correspondent for the independent Moscow newspaper Novaya Gazeta well-known for her investigative reporting on human rights violations by the Russian military in Chechnya, was shot dead in the apartment building in Moscow where she lived.  During her career as a journalist, Anna Politkovskaya had been threatened, jailed, forced into exile, and poisoned.

17 October 1994 – Journalist Dmitrii Kholodov, an investigative reporter for the Moscow-based newspaper Moskovskii Komsomolets, was killed in a bomb blast at the newspaper’s offices. Dmitrii Kholodov, who had been investigating mafia connections with the military, was killed when he opened a briefcase he had been led to believe contained secret documents exposing military corruption.

23-26 October 2002 – Tragedy at Moscow’s Dubrovka Theatre (showing the production Nord-Ost) when an armed group demanding withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya took hostage the actors and audience. At least 129 civilians and 41 of the hostage-takers were killed. 17 members of the production team were killed, including two child actors and a third of the musicians in the orchestra. 

30 October, 1974 – the first Day of Political Prisoners; since 1991 officially the Day of Victims of Political Repression.

16 November 2009 – Sergei Magnitsky died in pre-trial detention in Moscow 

20 November 1998 – Galina Starovoitova murdered in St. Petersburg.

21 November 2012 – The ‘foreign agent’ law entered into force. 

26 November 1994 – The pro-Moscow opposition in Chechnya, led by Umar Avturkhanov, Beslan Gantamirov and Ruslan Labazanov, with support from the Russian military, attempted unsuccessfully to overthrow the then president of Chechnya, Dzhokhar Dudaev, whose forces were under the command of Aslan Maskhadov, Ruslan Gelaev and Shamil Basaev, a key event in the build up to the Russian offensive that began that December.

11 December 1994 – Russian forces launched a ground offensive towards Grozny, marking the start of the First Chechen War. 

12 December 1993 – Adoption of the Russian Constitution by referendum. 

14 December 1989 – Andrei Sakharov died of a heart attack in Moscow. 

20 December 1917 – Creation of the Cheka (acronym for Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya, or Extraordinary Commission), the Bolshevik’s state security police, forerunner of today’s Federal Security Agency (FSB). 

25 December 1991 – Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic becomes the Russian Federation.