Professor Bill Bowring’s guest this week on “25 Questions” is Nadezhda Kutepova, a human rights activist from the closed city of Ozersk in Chelyabinsk region who currently lives in France. Nadezhda was director of the human rights organisation Planet of Hopes in Ozersk, specialising in the protection of the rights of those who suffered from the radiation pollution from the Mayak atomic plant based in the city. Planet of Hopes was one of the first NGOs in Russia to be branded as a ‘foreign agent’ organisation. In 2015 Nadezhda was forced to leave Russia and now lives in France where she has received political asylum. This year she has published a book, Тайны закрытых городов [(‘Tainy zakrytyx gorodov’ – Secrets of the Closed Cities) Ripol Klassik, ISBN: 978-5-386-14469-2б, 480pp, Moscow, 2021], which is an important study of Russia’s closed cities, many of which were homes to Russia’s atomic plants. Nadezhda Kutepova, who formerly lived in a closed city herself, looks at the history and present day of such places, combining facts and analysis with memories, everyday life with local and national politics. The video of the interview can be viewed on YouTube and below.